A mandatory enlistment of people in a military service. In Japan, conscription reportedly began in 1873. The middle and upper classes could be exempted but not the working class. Conscription intensified in 1938, with younger men enlisted. Shortage of manpower meant that Japanese boys as young as 15 were conscripted in 1944. Koreans were conscripted in 1944 and Formosans in 1945.